Table of Contents
Introduction: My Outlook of English 1010……………………………………………Page 3
Evaluation Movie Review: Halloween………………………………………………..Page 5
Reflection: The Day I Almost Died……………………………………………………Page 8
Analysis: Meatless Like Me……………………………………………………………Page 12
Research: Does Divorce Bring Negative Consequences?……………………………………….Page 15
Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………….Page 21
My Outlook of English 1010
As I began the Introduction to Writing Class I realized how much things have changed. I
have not been in an English class since 1989. Things were definitely a lot different back then.
the way things were cited then is definitely different. I had never even heard of MLA format.
This class has taught me a lot. I cannot say I am a pro at any of it though. I could probably take
this class ten more times and still have things I don’t understand.
In the evaluation paper I chose to write a movie review. I chose to review Halloween by
Rob Zombie. I love scary movies and have watched it a dozen times before. Although I did see it
so many times I found the assignment a little difficult. I ended up writing more about the story
line rather than the feelings and ideas of the movie. I never had paid attention to the genre which
is definitely a slasher film audience.
For the reflection paper I wrote about a scary time in my life. I found the thesis hard to
come up with. I figured it would be an easy paper to write. It was my easiest out of the four. It
still wasn’t easy though.
The analysis draft I wrote out of Readings for Writers was difficult too. This is when I
discovered I didn’t know how to cite at all.
Finally the research paper I chose, it was a topic that was very personal to me. I
researched facts, findings and opinions. I checked out 11 books from the local library and went
onto many websites. Even with all the information I gathered I still had a hard time writing this
paper. I couldn’t quite decide on the thesis statement. Once I finally figured it out I couldn’t
figure out how to write an argumentative paper. It turned out to be more persuasive. I didn’t
really know how to change it either.
With each paper I searched the internet to find explanations on what everything meant in
regards on how to write the paper. I am definitely behind the times. I still don’t understand
Rhetorical sensitivity, Ethos, Logos or Pathos very well at all. I get all of them mixed up. If
someone asked I would even have to look up the definition of each. That ages me, my
memory is going.
Before I began each paper I had a notebook in hand. I jotted down different ideas and
anything that came to mine. I also wrote down notes from the weekly chats. I read the example
drafts and made some notes from those also. I researched a lot on the internet too. Then I began
writing, then I rewrote a few more times. Finally I got everything written how I wanted it and I
submitted my papers.
Although I have found a lot of things in this class difficult I think it really has helped the
way I write. I seem to be more conscious about how I write.
Movie Review: “ Halloween” Directed and Written by Rob Zombie
This movie is set in Haddonfield, Illinois where Michael Myers committed his first
murders. Rob Zombie remade this classic horror film in 2007, it was originally written by
John Carpenter in 1978. Zombie reveals Michael Myers childhood which we have never seen
before in such detail. Carpenter never showed just how bad his childhood was. Carpenters movie
is basically about a mental patient who escapes and is stalking and killing babysitters. Zombies
movie is focused on Michael, we see what made Michael a psychopath. Zombie did change the
ending completely. It seemed as though the ending was rushed where the beginning really drug
on for at least 45 minutes. We learn a lot about the characters in the beginning but the characters
towards the end of the movie we don’t know much about. We do see the terrible childhood
Michael had. Daeg Faerch that plays Michael as a ten year old boy does an awesome job
portraying this boy in a dysfunctional family, you feel sorry for him. Then as Tyler Mane
plays the adult Michael Myers he takes the character to an evil side. Malcom McDowell
plays Dr. Sam Loomis, the psychiatrist for Michael. Scout Taylor-Compton plays the
character of Laurie Strode, Michaels baby sister, now a teenager. The movie begins with
Michael as a 10 year old boy. His family includes his mother, his mothers’ boyfriend and two
sisters. The mothers’ boyfriend is a dead beat that is shown drinking and verbally abusing
everyone in the home. The mother played by Sheri Moon Zombie is a kind hearted women that
is a stripper at the local strip club. His older sister is disobedient and ignores her family. The
baby sister, Michael really loves and is very gentle with her. You really can’t help but feel
sympathy for this family throughout the entire movie. The movie depicts them as a white
trash family, the mother has a dead beat boyfriend, a daughter going nowhere, a dead end job
and a son who is a killer. Michael is returning to Haddonfield 17 years after he was committed
to a mental institution where he has escaped. The reason for his return is to find his baby sister,
Zombies movie shows what Carpenters Halloween originally did, Dr. Loomis trying to
understand Michael. Why is he so angry? Loomis visits Michael in the Psychiatric ward and is
at a loss with him. Michael doesn’t remember what happened, what he did to his family. He
always asks his mother how the other family members are. Zombie shows that there is a definite
psychological problem there. Michael begins making masks to cover his “ugliness”, he is
obsessed with making masks and he starts talking less and less. In Zombies movie we learn why
Michael wears the mask and why he doesn’t speak. Carpenter never filled us in on those details,
he left that as a mystery. We could draw many conclusions.
Zombie does leave us with many questions, Why is Michael a giant in this movie? How
does he find and even know who his baby sister is, after all she was a baby when he got locked
up. Michael killed people that were mean to him, why does the killing change as an adult?
The 1978 Carpenter movie Laurie(Michaels baby sister) is shown as a heroine, Zombie
shows her as a victim. Rob Zombie does include many of the scenes and lines from the original
movie. Some of the original music is also used. The new music doesn’t seem to fit the movie.
This is a slasher film, there is a lot of cursing and sexual references so definitely for
adults only! I believe Zombie does this to show just how bad Michaels childhood was. I don’t
think it is all necessary to show how troubled the boy is. It does show a lot of negativity that
Michael was always around. This movie has a lot of blood and gore. If you like slasher films and
don’t mind all the cursing and sex this is great for you. Unfortunately this movie does not have
as much suspense as the original. You are expecting each event. There is not really a climax
either. After Michael escapes the mental institution it is basically one murder after another.
I personally love the Halloween movies and have since I was a teenager. I never dreamed
anyone could pull off a remake but Rob Zombie does a fabulous job. I was on the edge of my
seat gritting my teeth. Mostly to see who would get it next!
I read some of the facts about the movie on Wikepedia that I will share. June 4, 2006
Rob Zombie announced he was remaking Halloween. John Carpenter and he are friends so they
Spoke about it and John said, “Make it your own.” The movie was released August 31, 2007.
The film cost $15 million to make and grossed $80, 208,039 at the box offices worldwide.
The 1978 film of John Carpenters had a budget of $325, 000 and grossed $47
Million at the box office in the United States, and $70 million worldwide. (wikepedia.com)
The Day I Almost Died
June 3, 1998 was a day that my life changed. I had been unable to keep food or liquids
down for ten days. I had made numerous visits to the emergency room and I was told every time
that there was no medical reason I was ill. My doctor actually went as far as to say, “its all in
your head.” I was shocked, I knew something was wrong, I had only been this ill when I was
pregnant and I wasn’t. I was shaking I was so angry that the doctor would say such a thing. I
could feel in my gut something was seriously wrong, how dare he say it was all in my head.
I shouldn’t have been so surprised since men always think women are overreacting.
On the evening of June 2 I got up in the middle of the night to get a drink from the
kitchen. As I stood up the entire room was spinning, I felt like I just got off the teacups at
Lagoon. My body was sweaty and I felt like I was on fire. I was weak and shaky, as I took
a few steps I passed out. I woke up on the floor. I don’t know how long I had laid there. I
tried yelling for my husband. I was weak, I hardly had a voice. All that came out was a
whisper, “Are you awake?” I don’t know if I fell asleep or passed out again. When I woke up
the second time the sun was out. I knew my husband would be awake and getting ready for
work, he would find me on the floor. Finally, which seemed like hours he found me and helped
me onto the couch. He was ready to leave for work, as he started to leave, I said to him, “Are
you just going to leave me here?” His response was in a high pitched, no big deal tone, “What
do you want me to do, the doctor said, “its all in your head.” As I cried, I asked him to take
our three children, who were 7, 5 and 3 to their grandmothers. He angrily got them ready,
cussing under his breath that I should quit faking and watch our kids. As him and our children
went out the door I stated, “When you get home from work, I will be dead.” After all the
accusations of me being over dramatic he called the doctor. We dropped our children off to
Grandma and headed to the doctors office. After arriving at the doctors office I was told I
would be admitted to the hospital for dehydration. I had made numerous emergency room
visits over the last ten days so was relieved that finally something was going to be done. I
felt relief, I sighed, I was hopeful the doctors would figure out what was wrong. I was
admitted around 8:30am, I changed into a gown, got into bed and the nurse came in to
start and IV. Over the proceeding hour a few nurses and nursing assistants came into check
my vital signs. After my blood pressure was taken the first time I asked the nurse, “what is it?”
She ignored my question and said she would be right back. I didn’t understand, don’t I have a
right to know? A few minutes later a different nurse came in, again she took my blood pressure
and again I asked, “what is it?” The nurse said their machine was not working and she would go
get another one. A few moments later two nurses with a new machine came in. I thought, “I
do it the old fashioned way why don’t you?” My blood pressure was taken again and again I
asked. She left the room, my heart was racing and I was shaking I was so angry I could feel
my face turning red. I over heard the nurse on the phone. “No doctor, I cannot find a pulse…..
well of course she must have one, she is talking…..” I didn’t hear anything after that, I had a
sick feeling in my stomach,” something is really wrong”, I thought. The nurse returned and
explained the highest reading the blood pressure machine was getting was 50/10, they could
not find my pulse and my heart rate was 140BPM. My thoughts were all over the place, I was
a licensed Nursing Assistant and I knew this was all bad news. The nurse told me the doctor said
he would be in soon. Trying to wait patiently, sweaty and shaky a phlebotomist walked in at
10am. He did a blood draw, so many things were going through my mind, one of course was,
“How are my kids going to be without me?”
After the nurse calling the doctor numerous times he showed up at 2pm. He came in
and said, “I need to transfer you to University Hospital in Salt Lake.” My heart was pounding,
I was barely able to move I was so scared. He explained that I would be seeing an oncologist.
“Oh great”, I thought. “I knew I had cancer and this idiot said,” it’s all in my head”. Thankfully
after my anger subsided I was told he was a hematologist and they had not found cancer but that
my blood count was crazy.
I was told I could go by ambulance, my husband could drive me or I could go by Life
Flight. “Did I need Life Flight?”, I thought to myself. After a lot of questions I felt going by
Ambulance, although I was worried I felt safe doing that.
My husband had went to work after I was admitted to the hospital so I had to locate him.
I called his office and left a message with his secretary. Frantically I started dialing family
members and asked them to please find him. I remember being loaded into the ambulance, I
remember speaking to the EMT’s and I remember the rain hitting the sides of the ambulance.
The next thing I remember was waking up and my neck felt stiff and the hospital bed was
tipped up so my head was pointing to the floor. My room was dark, I could hear someone crying
quietly. I tried turning my head, I discovered I had a main line IV in my neck that blood was
pumping into. I tried to call to the person that I could hear, my voice was still a whisper. I made
some movement and my husband ran over crying. I said, “What happened?” He told me how I
went unconscious and they had found a bleeding ulcer that they had to cauterize. I had lost four
units of blood and that was why I was getting a blood transfusion. My appendix had ruptured and
I had had to have my gall bladder removed because it was so inflamed. I was thankful to be alive
at this point. My smart alec side said in a very angry whisper, “I told you if you left me at home
this morning I would be dead when you got home.” My husband said, “Cheryl that was three
days ago.” In the next few days I had to have an emergency hysterectomy. I could have left my
children motherless. If I had not been admitted for dehydration I would be dead. If I had not
been sent to this specialist my family would have been left without me. I learned that I had
Von Willebrands, this is a blood disorder similar to a hemophiliac. I had cysts on my ovaries
which were bleeding. Thankful the worst was behind me and greatful to be alive I didn’t have
a care in the world. The doctor said when I arrived at the hospital they could not get a blood
pressure, a pulse or a heart rate, I was presumed dead. They revived me and got me into surgery.
What they found was that I was drowning in my own blood. My stomach was pooled with four
units of blood, they drained it and gave me a transfusion, over the next couple days I had to have
I knew I was going to die that day, I am relieved that I am still here, I was able to raise
my children and have grandchildren. I am very glad for the doctors who revived me and took
such good care of me. From that day on I NEVER have let a doctor tell myself or anyone else,
“its all in your head.” I ignore that comment and fight with every breath to get medical attention.
“Meatless like Me”
In “Meatless like Me”, Taylor Clark talks about vegetarians and the way people react to
vegetarians. Clark explains that vegetarians are no different than someone who eats meat.
Vegans however are those who avoid animal products all together.
Clark is a herbivore and is speaking to those omnivores that find him anything but
“normal”. Clark explains to his readers that he and other vegetarians are normal. He tells this
with quite a bit of humor (Clark pg. 74).
Clark appeals to his readers when he gives a description of the first time that people
made a big deal of him being a vegetarian. He draws you in with the detail so you understand
exactly how he felt. He explains how he had succeeded in showing everyone at a scholarship
luncheon what a responsible young man he was. He is very descriptive in everything he says. It
makes you feel like you are there in the room with him. Clark said after being asked why he
hadn’t taken any meat from the buffet table, “30 people went eerily quiet, undoubtedly expecting
me to launch into a speech on the virtues of hemp” (Clark Pg. 73)
Clark explains to his readers what a vegetarian is and why people are vegetarians. He
tells his readers’ to imagine a normal person with normal food cravings with a broad range of
friends and enjoys a good time. He then says “remove from this persons’ diet, anything that once
had eyes” (Clark pg.74). So basically he has a very logical explanation. Everyone can imagine
what a vegetarian is, no questions asked with his definition. Clark goes onto explain differences
in vegetarians. He says people who eat chicken and fish are still omnivores. Vegans are those
who avoid all animal products. Vegetarians are those who do not consume any meat and eat
vegetables, tofu and other herbal foods (Clark pg. 74).
Clark lays out on the line how omnivores act and how silly they actually sound
when asking questions like, “Will we panic if confronted with a hamburger?” His explanations
of the way people react and the things people say are hilarious. It actually makes you want to
hear more. Clark uses pathos to appeal to his readers, “ prompting everyone in earshot to stare at
him as if he just revealed plans to sail his carrot-powered plasma yacht to Neptune” (Clark
pg.74) It was exciting to read on afterthat point.
Taylor Clark also talks about how thoughtful and how thoughtless some people are in
regards to vegetarians. He tells his readers how he doesn’t want to hear about vegetarians doing
something wrong. He lets you know if you want to talk about it great, if not don’t insult him
Clark explains why vegetarians gave up meat, he shows this through logos. He states
“Vegetarians give up meat for a variety of ethical, environmental, and health reasons “. He
explains That it is not that they believe meat doesn’t taste good, its slaughtering the animals that
bother them. He goes on to say that is “why there’s a freezer case at your supermarket full of
woefully inadequate meat substitutes” (Clark pg. 75)
Taylor is very sarcastic in his writings. He states, “I’m not exactly St. Francis of Assisi
over here, tenderly ministering to every chipmunk that crosses my path” (Clark pg. 76). Then
says “take a look at my shoes-they’re made of leather, which I am told by those with expert
knowledge of the tanning process, comes from dead cows” (Clark pg. 76) He says he is accused
of hypocrisy and says, “Hey, you try and find a pair of non leather dress shoes” (Clark pg. 76).
Taylor Clark is very entertaining. His sarcasm is quite enjoyable. Clark does a good job
of supporting his arguments and does it in a humorous way to get readers to keep reading. Clarks
writing has informal fallacies. Like when he says “few herbivores go one step further and avoid
all animal products-milk, eggs, honey, leather-and they call themselves vegan”(Clark pg. 74).
Does Divorce Bring Negative Consequences?
A. Dean Byrd explains about negative things parents say to their children. It seems
children are the ones who suffer the most from negative effects in divorce. Byrd describes many
negative things that parents say and do. He said, parents say things like “you are just like your
mother” or “you are just like your father”. (128) The other thing ex-spouses do is blame
everything on the divorce. (128) Putting your child in the middle by passing messages to your
former spouse through them. Byrd says, “Don’t try to protect your children from consequences
of divorce”. He says to include them in decisions. (129)
Wallerstein and Blakeslee, Second Chances said that “the quality of the mother-child
relationship is the singles most critical factor in determining how children feel about themselves
in the post-divorce decade and how well they function in the various domains of their
On Mediate.com Kathleen O’Connell Corcoran gives many statistics. The following
are a few of them. Fifty percent of marriages end in divorce. The United States has the highest
divorce rate. Sixty-seven percent of second marriages end in divorce. These rates are terribly
high, but from 2005 these rates have gone down. An interesting statistic is that women initiate
divorce twice as often as men. Women experience less stress and adjust better than men after a
divorce. Women tend to have more of a support group than men do with family and friends. Men
remarry more quickly than women. Men are more negative about divorce and spend more
energy attempting to salvage the marriage. (Corcoran)
Paul R. Amato and Denise Previti used a national panel data collection and gave the
following reasons for divorce, the most common is infidelity, incompatibility, drinking, drug
use and just growing apart.
The United States Census shows that the divorce rate is lower now than it was in 1990.
Out of 2,230,000 marriages, the divorce rate was 3.6% per 1000 people. The highest rate was in
1981 at a rate of 5.3%. Nevada had the highest divorce rate than any other state, while
Massachusetts had the lowest. Some sources say the divorce rates may go down, only because
people are becoming more likely to live together than marry. Divorce statistics.org (DS)) also
say if you are over the age of 30 when you marry the percentage of divorce rate goes down. The
highest percentage is of men and women between the age of 20-24 years old. (DSO) In
Utah in 1990 the divorce rate per 1000 people was 5.1% and in 2010 went down to 3.7%. Second
marriages have a 60-67% divorce rate and third marriages have a 70-73% divorce rate. Couples
who do not have children have a higher divorce rate than childless couples. After a divorce
men generally wait 3.3 years to remarry, women wait 3.1 years. (DSO) Divorce in
the United States is highest in the world. (MO) In 1980 interracial couples had the
highest divorce rate, the highest was between white females and non-white males. In 2002 the
percentage of couples who reached their 5th anniversary was 82% but, the percentage of those
that reached 15 years went down to 52%. (DSO)
Guy M. Galli says, Divorce is generally not a “win-win” relationship. When couples have
children with their former spouse “win-win” in not usually the case. (37) When there are
conflicts there is always those “win-lose” circumstances where each person in the relationship
tend to fight hard and dirty. Galli says, couples will “pull no punches” to win everything,
children and belongings alike.(38) He also says there is a “lose-win”, this is where one spouse
gives in and gives the other person whatever they want and and are basically a doormat. (38)
Then there is also the “lose-lose” situation. How can both parents lose? Galli explains, this is
when the one parent has visitation of the child and that parent wants to go on vacation, out of
town or on a date but doesn’t let the other parent watch the child.(38)
In the book “After Divorce” S. Brent Scharman has written a chapter titled, “LDS
Men and Divorce”. Scharman states, “Two of the most common though contradictory
stereotypes about divorce are that it opens the door to a life of poverty and deprivation for
the wife and children and that the husband becomes the fulfillment of the sentiments of the
country song, “She got the gold mine and I got the shaft”. “ (81) In this chapter it explains that
studies show women are worse off financially after divorce. It also says women may be happier
having control over the limited resources they do have. (81)
Kristin Armstrong wrote a 365 daily devotional book. It is called “Happily Ever After”,
“Walking with Peace and Courage Through a Year of Divorce.” Day 2 of this book is called,
“Choosing Your Path”. In a portion of this Armstrong explains how it is imperative to recognize
the significance of healing. She states, “This choice not only affects you, but it can also shape the
legacy you leave for your children and grandchildren. The path of sour bitterness, crusty
resentment, and cold regret breeds generations of despair.”
Andrew J. Cherlin wrote a book called “The Marriage Go Around”, “The State of
Marriage and the Family in America Today”. This book talks about marriage and divorce
in different countries and cultures. In this book it talks about a national survey that was given
to Americans, they were asked if they agreed or disagreed with the following statement:
“Marriage is a lifetime relationship that should never be ended except under extreme
circumstances.”, said Cherlin. Only 11 percent said they disagreed and 13 percent neither agreed
or disagreed. Although when people marry they intend for their marriage to last forever. (25)
Divorce generally effects children more than it effects the adults. Children feel as if its
their fault and they are used as leverage to the other parent.
Shelley Stile talks about the negative emotions and thoughts that people hold onto that
stops them from moving on with their lives. She says anger, sadness, depression, rage, grief,
resentment, bitterness and confusion are some of the feelings divorcing couples experience.
After a divorce is finalized there is a new way of life and sometimes it gets lonely.
Even the person who initiated the divorce have these feelings, everyones life has changed. If
resentment and hatred is what is thought about daily lives can’t go on. (divorceonline.com) Stile
lists eleven items that help divorced people let go of bad thoughts and emotions. The first is life
is precious and it needs to be made great. Second, only you are responsible for your life. Third,
learn how to grow and not live in the past. Fourth, everything happens for a reason. Fifth, It is
not what happens in life, its how a person handles it that matters. Sixth, don’t spend your life
asking what should have been. Seventh, separate facts from drama. Eighth, “Don’t let the mind
chatter run the show because you will forever stay stuck.” Ninth, Learn to forgive. Tenth, Fall in
love with yourself and honor yourself. Eleventh, you have control of one thing that is yourself.
Price and McKenry said that there are some influential reasons that there has been such
a change in the divorce rate from earlier times. Economic conditions, the rise of feminism, and
reform of divorce laws. They also said the “wars made women indispensable to the workforce.
Since these things happened women became more independent, more assertive, they started
getting an education, became part of the workforce, had fewer children and fought for equal
rights. Hetherington and Arasteh have said that divorce is not the beginning of turmoil its been
apart of their daily lives for a while.
The California Children of Divorce Project was started in 1971 and ended in 1981.
Sixty divorced families were in the study. There was an interview at 18 months, 5 years and
10 years after the divorce. Nine families were referred to psychologists so they were not
included in the study which left fifty-two families. The responses from the children were based
on general and separation anxiety, sleep patterns and anger. The younger children were more
affected but there was not a noticeable difference in gender. Eighteen months into the study
boys were showing difficulty in sleeping. At five years the “strong correlation between the
psychological adjustment and the overall healthiness of the family life after the divorce was
the best predictor of the attitudes and behaviors of the children.” After 10 years, the majority
of the children recalled negative images of their parents split up and felt deprived of a normal
childhood. The young women had a fear of betrayal and attachment, but they still believed
they could have a happy marriage. (TCCDP)
These days divorce is so lenient that society is more accepting of the idea. Researchers
say that there is an “entirely new generation” of children to study. Over the last 10 years the
negative effects on children have been delayed social maturation, the sleeper effect, the
increased likelihood of marital instability and lower levels of academic achievement.
Researchers want to know about these effects for children’s studies to ensure proper
interventions are established so families can cope with stressful events. (Price and McKenry)
Harper Book of America Quotations stated, “So many persons think divorce a panacea
(cure-all) for every ill, find out, when they try it, that the remedy is worse than the disease.”
After reading all the facts and findings from researchers and other sources, Does Divorce
Bring Negative Consequences? My sources say yes!
Armstrong, Kristin “Happily Ever After Walking with Peace and Courage Through a Year of Divorce “
New York January 2007. Print.
Byrd, A. Dean” Finding Wholeness and Happiness After Divorce “ Utah 1948. Print.
Cherlin, Andrew J. “The Marriage-Go-Round The State of Marriage and Family in Amercia Today”
New York 2009. Print.
Galli, Guy M. B.S., Pruden, David C. M.S. “When Forever Doesn’t Last A healing Journey Through
Divorce “ Utah. 2010. Print.
Price, Sharon J., Mckenry, Patrick C. “Divorce” Newbury Park, California. 1988. Print.
Aramato, Paul R., Previti, Denise”Peoples Reasons for Divorcing: Gender, Social Class,
The Life Course and Adjustment” psychology.uiowa.edu. Pennsylvania State
University, 5 July 2003. Web. 14 Nov. 2012
Corcoran, Kathleen O’Connell “Psychological and Emotional Aspects of Divorce” mediate.com
Mediate.com, June 1997. Web. 15 Nov. 2012
Stile, Shelley “Divorce Recovery:Releasing the Toxic Emotions” divorceonline.com.
American Divorce Information Network 17 Jan.2012 Web. 11 Nov. 2012
Americans for Divorce Reform “Divorce Statistics” divorcestatistics.org Discover Channel
2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2012
FastStats Cdc.gov Center for Disease Control and Prevention 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2012
Wallerstein, Judith S. and Blakeslee, Sandra , “Second Chances”, Corgi 1 January, 1990
Clark, Taylor, “Meatless like Me”, Readings for Writers, Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012